Sturnus Vulgaris, commonly known as starlings, have created a problem in North America by displacing endemic species of this continent.

The Invaded Areas

The European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) was introduced to New York City in 1890 and has since become one of the most common species in North America. Starlings are aggressive competitors and usually invade the nests of other nesting species . These characteristics make it a clear choice for species whose invasion may have a significant impact on native empty-nest nesting birds.
Since its first successful establishment, the European starling has proven itself to be a resourceful and hardy bird that can adapt well to the environmental conditions in many parts of North America. It is found throughout southern Canada and the entire United States, except southern Florida and the extreme northeastern part of Mexico. It breeds widely in the United States and Canada, spreading across the northeastern part of a line from south-central British Columbia, northeastern Oregon, and northern Utah to southern Mississippi. In the southwestern part of this line, starlings only appear in winter and during migration. The last area where the starling spread westward was the Pacific Rim.
Generally, starlings are considered to impact nest site choice. They are known to go after settle destinations with local depression settling birds, including the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). A normal of 62% of kestrel home boxes in examinations inside human-ruled areas across North America were involved by starlings. In Colorado, all home boxes raised in farmland for American Kestrels were occupied by starlings.

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